In our recent Nature article, we developed a new theory on how flying drones and insects can estimate gravity direction by combining visual motion sensing with a model of how they move. This discovery forms a parsimonious explanation of multiple phenomena observed in biology and is also an important step for the creation of autonomous tiny drones with even fewer sensors. 

Guido C. H. E. Croon, Julien J. G. Dupeyroux, Christophe De Wagter, Abhishek Chatterjee, Diana A. Olejnik, Franck Ruffier: Accommodating unobservability to control flight attitude with optic flow. In: Nature: international weekly journal of science, vol. 610, no. 7932, pp. 485–490, 2022, ISSN: 0028-0836.

Nature Machine Intelligence Paper

Whereas insects seem to control their flight effortlessly with the help of optical flow, robots that attempt to do the same run into problems. We propose as a solution a learning process that allows robots to see distances by means of visual appearance (colors, textures, shapes). Would it be possible that insects do the same?

The article is featured on the cover of Nature Machine Intelligence. Cover reprinted by permission from Springer Nature.

G.C.H.E. de Croon, C. De Wagter, T. Seidl: Enhancing optical-flow-based control by learning visual appearance cues for flying robots. In: Nature Machine Intelligence, vol. 3, no. 1, 2021.

Science Robotics Paper

Our recent paper in Science Robotics presents the first swarm of tiny robots that can explore unknown environments completely by themselves. No map, no memory, and no GPS! The full paper can be found here.

K N McGuire, C De Wagter, K Tuyls, H J Kappen, G C H E de Croon: Minimal navigation solution for a swarm of tiny flying robots to explore an unknown environment. In: Science Robotics, vol. 4, no. 35, 2019.


Delfly Book



Our book about the DelFly has been published! The book introduces the topics most relevant to autonomously flying flapping-wing robots: flapping-wing design, aerodynamics, and artificial intelligence.


G C H E de Croon, Mustafa Percin, B D W Remes, Rick Ruijsink, C De Wagter: The DelFly - Design, Aerodynamics, and Artificial Intelligence of a Flapping Wing Robot. Springer Netherlands, 2016, ISBN: 978-94-017-9207-3.


Science paper



The Delfly Nimble was featured on the cover of Science Magazine in September 2018.


Matěj Karásek, Florian T Muijres, Christophe De Wagter, Bart D W Remes, Guido C H E de Croon: A tailless aerial robotic flapper reveals that flies use torque coupling in rapid banked turns. In: Science, vol. 361, no. 6407, pp. 1089–1094, 2018, ISSN: 0036-8075.






All publications

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Proceedings Articles

Kristien M E De Clercq; Roland De Kat; Bart Remes; Bas Van W Oudheusden; Hester Bijl

Flow Visualization and Force Measurements on a Hovering Flapping-Wing MAV `DelFly II' (Proceedings Article)

In: Proceedings of the 39th AIAA Fluid Dynamics Conference, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics San Antonio, US-TX, 2009.

(Abstract | BibTeX)

Masters Theses

M. J. Verveld

Optical Flow Based State Estimation for an Indoor Micro Aerial Vehicle (Masters Thesis)

Delft University of Technology, 2009, (Mulder, J.A. (mentor); Chu, Q.P. (mentor); de Wagter, C. (mentor)).

(Abstract | Links | BibTeX)

K De Clercq

Flow visualization and force measurements on a hovering flapping-wing MAV 'DelFly II' (Masters Thesis)

Delft University of Technology, Delft, NL, 2009.



Proceedings Articles

C de Wagter; JA Mulder

Vision-Only Control of a Flapping MAV on Mars (Proceedings Article)

In: S.N., (Ed.): Proceedings of the AIAA Guidance, Navigation and Control Conference & Exhibit, pp. 1–7, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc. (AIAA), United States, 2007, ISBN: AIAA-2007-6853, (null ; Conference date: 20-08-2007 Through 23-08-2007).

(Links | BibTeX)


Journal Articles

C de Wagter; JA Mulder

Vision-based guidance and awareness for autonomous UAV (Journal Article)

In: Journal of Gyroscopy and Navigation, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 13–25, 2006, ISSN: 0869-7035.

(Links | BibTeX)

Proceedings Articles

A Muis; JMV Oliveira; JA Mulder

Development of a flexible flight test instrumentation system (Proceedings Article)

In: s.n., (Ed.): Proceedings of the Society of Flight Test Engineers 17th European Chapter Symposium 2006, Innovation in flight test engineering, pp. –, SFTE, 2006, (null ; Conference date: 12-06-2006 Through 14-06-2006).

(Links | BibTeX)


Proceedings Articles

Christophe De Wagter; J A Mulder

Towards vision-based uav situation awareness (Proceedings Article)

In: AIAA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Conference and Exhibit, pp. 5872, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), San Francisco, CA, USA, 2005.

(Links | BibTeX)

C De Wagter; J A Mulder

Vision-Based Guidance and Awareness for Autonomous UAV (Proceedings Article)

In: Peshekhonov, Vladimir G (Ed.): Proceedings of the 12th Saint Petersburg International Conference on Intregrated Navigation Systems, pp. –, State Research Center of Russia "Elektropribor", Saint Petersburg, Russia, 2005.


JMV Oliveira; QP Chu; JA Mulder

Output error method and two step method for aerodynamic model identification (aiaa 6440) (Proceedings Article)

In: Proceedings of the AiAA GNC Conference and Exhibit, pp. –, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc. (AIAA), United States, 2005, (null ; Conference date: 15-08-2005 Through 18-08-2005).

(Links | BibTeX)

JMV Oliveira; QP Chu; JA Mulder

Estimating attitude using velocity aiding (Proceedings Article)

In: Peshekhonov, Vladimir G. (Ed.): Proceedings of the 12th Saint Petersburg International Conference on Integrated Navigation Systems, pp. 222–231, 2005, (null ; Conference date: 23-05-2005 Through 25-05-2005).

(Links | BibTeX)


Proceedings Articles

M Mulder; TM Lam; C de Wagter; MM van Paassen; JA Mulder

Increasing the Safety of Operating Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (Proceedings Article)

In: Proceedings of the Fourth Polish Avionics Conference, pp. –, 2004, (null ; Conference date: 17-09-2004 Through 19-09-2004).

(Links | BibTeX)


Proceedings Articles

C De Wagter; A A Proctor; E N Johnson

Vision-only aircraft flight control (Proceedings Article)

In: Digital Avionics Systems Conference, 2003. DASC '03. The 22nd, pp. 8.B.2-81-11 vol.2, 2003.

(Links | BibTeX)

512 entries « 11 of 11 »