Extremely light-weight Autonomous MAVs

Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) are becoming ever smaller and lighter. This opens new areas of application, mainly because of the capability to access small spaces. A straightforward example of such an application is building inspection. In such a case there is in general no prior knowledge about the environment. Furthermore there will be no direct communication between MAV and operator due to signal blocking, and GPS positioning is not possible for the same reason. These restrictions require the MAV to perform several autonomous tasks: attitude control, obstacle avoidance, navigation etc.

Extremely light-weight MAVs are very limited in the amount of available onboard sensors and processing power. This project aims at developing an onboard system that provides the resources required for full autonomy. It should enable the MAV to perform the following tasks:

  1. determine safe directions of flight
  2. explore the environment efficiently and thoroughly
  3. find out how to enter new spaces to increase the exploration area
  4. find its way back to previously visited points

This system will be used for and tested on DelFly, a Flapping Wing MAV of less than 20 grams developed by TUDelft. The dimensions of this MAV demand a system that makes use of an extremely efficient combination of sensor types, data processing algorithms and control loops. This will lead to approaches that are more biologically inspired than current state-of-the-art avoidance and mapping methods. The main focus will be on using cameras and vision-based methods. The objective is to develop a vision-based system that can be carried onboard a light weight MAV (<20 grams) which enables fully autonomous operation in GPS-denied environments.

 

Publications

 

2013

  • S. Tijmons, G. {de Croon}, B. Remes, C. {de Wagter}, H. Ruijsink, E. {van Kampen}, and Q. Chu, “Stereo vision based obstacle avoidance on flapping wing mav’s,” in Advances in aerospace guidance, navigation and control, J. Mulder, D. Choukroun, E. {van Kampen}, C. {de Visser}, G. Looye, and Q. Chu, Eds., Springer, 2013, p. 463–482.
    [Bibtex]
    @inbook{25df4b6332bb4ebab37cd6a642ac52ef,
    author = {S Tijmons and {de Croon}, GCHE and BDW Remes and {de Wagter}, C and HM Ruijsink and {van Kampen}, EJ and QP Chu},
    booktitle = {Advances in Aerospace Guidance, Navigation and Control},
    editor = {JA Mulder and D Choukroun and {van Kampen}, E and {de Visser}, CC and GJ Looye and QP Chu},
    isbn = {978-3-642-38253-6},
    keywords = {Boekdeel internat.wet},
    language = {English},
    pages = {463--482},
    publisher = {Springer},
    title = {Stereo Vision Based Obstacle Avoidance on Flapping Wing MAV's},
    url = {https://research.tudelft.nl/en/publications/stereo-vision-based-obstacle-avoidance-on-flapping-wing-mavs-2},
    year = {2013}
    }
  • S. Tijmons, G. {de Croon}, B. Remes, C. {de Wagter}, H. Ruijsink, E. {van Kampen}, and Q. Chu, “Stereo vision based obstacle avoidance on flapping wing mav’s,” in Proceedings of the euro gnc 2013, 2013, p. 80–97.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{0c15c7d26b6f401daf267e30f07c1173,
    author = {S Tijmons and {de Croon}, GCHE and BDW Remes and {de Wagter}, C and HM Ruijsink and {van Kampen}, E and QP Chu},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the EURO GNC 2013},
    editor = {JA Mulder and D Choukroun and {van Kampen}, E and {de VIsser}, CC and GJ Looye},
    keywords = {Conf.proc. > 3 pag},
    language = {English},
    note = {The EURO GNC 2013 ; Conference date: 10-04-2013 Through 12-04-2013},
    pages = {80--97},
    publisher = {Springer},
    title = {Stereo Vision Based Obstacle Avoidance on Flapping Wing MAV's},
    url = {https://research.tudelft.nl/en/publications/stereo-vision-based-obstacle-avoidance-on-flapping-wing-mavs},
    year = {2013}
    }

2014

  • S. Tijmons, G. {de Croon}, B. Remes, C. {de Wagter}, H. Ruijsink, E. {van Kampen}, and Q. Chu, “Off-board processing of stereo vision images for obstacle avoidance on a flapping wing mav,” in Proceedings of the pegasus – aiaa student conference, United States, 2014, p. 1–16.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{6c0c4dcf26cd4479ac7378655a780e2f,
    address = {United States},
    author = {S Tijmons and {de Croon}, GCHE and BDW Remes and {de Wagter}, C and HM Ruijsink and {van Kampen}, EJ and QP Chu},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the PEGASUS - AIAA Student Conference},
    editor = {s.n.},
    keywords = {Conf.proc. > 3 pag},
    language = {English},
    note = {The PEGASUS - AIAA Student Conference ; Conference date: 23-04-2014 Through 25-04-2014},
    pages = {1--16},
    publisher = {American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc. (AIAA)},
    title = {Off-board processing of Stereo Vision images for Obstacle Avoidance on a flapping Wing MAV},
    url = {https://research.tudelft.nl/en/publications/off-board-processing-of-stereo-vision-images-for-obstacle-avoidan},
    year = {2014}
    }
  • [DOI] C. {de Wagter}, S. Tijmons, B. Remes, and G. {de Croon}, “Autonomous flight of a 20-gram flapping wing mav with a 4-gram onboard stereo vision system,” in Proceedings of the 2014 ieee international conference on robotics and automation (icra 2014), 2014, p. 4982–4987.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{a7f5fae1c2e14d0581838d1d64809a61,
    author = {{de Wagter}, C and S Tijmons and BDW Remes and {de Croon}, GCHE},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2014 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA 2014)},
    doi = {10.1109/ICRA.2014.6907589},
    editor = {s.n.},
    keywords = {Conf.proc. > 3 pag},
    language = {English},
    note = {The 2014 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA 2014) ; Conference date: 31-05-2014 Through 07-06-2014},
    pages = {4982--4987},
    publisher = {IEEE Society},
    title = {Autonomous Flight of a 20-gram Flapping Wing MAV with a 4-gram Onboard Stereo Vision System},
    url = {https://research.tudelft.nl/en/publications/autonomous-flight-of-a-20-gram-flapping-wing-mav-with-a-4-gram-on},
    year = {2014}
    }

2015

  • [DOI] J. Verboom, S. Tijmons, C. {de Wagter}, B. Remes, R. Babuska, and G. {de Croon}, “Attitude and altitude estimation and control on board a flapping wing micro air vehicle,” in Proceedings of the 2015 ieee international conference on robotics and automation, 2015, p. 5846–5851.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{b05f9cc98d1f4c05b7f2208bb0f7eb06,
    author = {JL Verboom and S Tijmons and {de Wagter}, C and B Remes and R Babuska and {de Croon}, GCHE},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2015 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation},
    doi = {10.1109/ICRA.2015.7140017},
    editor = {A Okamura},
    isbn = {978-1-4799-6923-4},
    language = {English},
    note = {Harvest; ICRA 2015, Seattle, WA, USA ; Conference date: 26-05-2015 Through 30-05-2015},
    pages = {5846--5851},
    publisher = {IEEE Society},
    title = {Attitude and altitude estimation and control on board a Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicle},
    url = {https://research.tudelft.nl/en/publications/attitude-and-altitude-estimation-and-control-on-board-a-flapping-},
    year = {2015}
    }
  • [DOI] J. Koopmans, S. Tijmons, C. {de Wagter}, and G. {de Croon}, “Passively stable flapping flight from hover to fast forward through shift in wing position,” International journal of micro air vehicles, vol. 7, iss. 4, p. 407–418, 2015.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{32089b562f8a49ad81019d0d0e0687b5,
    author = {JA Koopmans and S Tijmons and {de Wagter}, C and {de Croon}, GCHE},
    doi = {10.1260/1756-8293.7.4.407},
    issn = {1756-8293},
    journal = {International Journal of Micro Air Vehicles},
    language = {English},
    note = {harvest},
    number = {4},
    pages = {407--418},
    publisher = {Multi-Science Publishing Co. Ltd},
    title = {Passively stable flapping flight from hover to fast forward through shift in wing position},
    url = {https://research.tudelft.nl/en/publications/passively-stable-flapping-flight-from-hover-to-fast-forward-throu},
    volume = {7},
    year = {2015}
    }

2016

  • [DOI] K. Scheper, S. Tijmons, C. {de Visser}, and G. {de Croon}, “Behavior trees for evolutionary robotics,” Artificial life, vol. 22, iss. 1, p. 23–48, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{8a89b8035e7640cd8c22b9b9c10e46dc,
    author = {Kirk Scheper and Sjoerd Tijmons and {de Visser}, Coen and {de Croon}, Guido},
    day = {17},
    doi = {10.1162/ARTL_a_00192},
    issn = {1064-5462},
    journal = {Artificial Life},
    keywords = {Behaviour Tree, Evolutionary Robotics, Reality Gap, MAVs},
    language = {English},
    month = {February},
    number = {1},
    pages = {23--48},
    publisher = {MIT Press Journals},
    title = {Behavior Trees for Evolutionary Robotics},
    url = {https://research.tudelft.nl/en/publications/behavior-trees-for-evolutionary-robotics},
    volume = {22},
    year = {2016}
    }
  • [DOI] K. Lamers, S. Tijmons, C. {de Wagter}, and G. {de Croon}, “Self-supervised monocular distance learning on a lightweight micro air vehicle,” in Iros 2016, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{fd86be3eb80645acba12e447b255df00,
    author = {K. Lamers and Sjoerd Tijmons and {de Wagter}, Christophe and {de Croon}, Guido},
    booktitle = {IROS 2016},
    doi = {10.1109/IROS.2016.7759284},
    isbn = {978-1-5090-3762-9},
    language = {English},
    note = {2016 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, IROS 2016, IROS 2016 ; Conference date: 09-10-2016 Through 14-10-2016},
    title = {Self-supervised monocular distance learning on a lightweight micro air vehicle},
    url = {https://research.tudelft.nl/en/publications/self-supervised-monocular-distance-learning-on-a-lightweight-micr},
    url2 = {http://www.iros2016.org/},
    year = {2016}
    }

2017

  • [DOI] S. Tijmons, {. C. H. E. }. {De Croon}, {. D. W. }. Remes, C. {De Wagter}, and M. Mulder, “Obstacle avoidance strategy using onboard stereo vision on a flapping wing mav,” Ieee transactions on robotics, vol. 33, iss. 4, p. 858–874, 2017.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{d37e387eb3e94865a663fce594159d89,
    author = {Sjoerd Tijmons and {De Croon}, {Guido C.H.E.} and Remes, {Bart D.W.} and {De Wagter}, Christophe and Max Mulder},
    day = {1},
    doi = {10.1109/TRO.2017.2683530},
    issn = {1552-3098},
    journal = {IEEE Transactions on Robotics},
    keywords = {Aerial robotics, collision avoidance, micro robots, stereo vision},
    language = {English},
    month = {August},
    number = {4},
    pages = {858--874},
    publisher = {Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)},
    title = {Obstacle Avoidance Strategy using Onboard Stereo Vision on a Flapping Wing MAV},
    url = {https://research.tudelft.nl/en/publications/obstacle-avoidance-strategy-using-onboard-stereo-vision-on-a-flap},
    volume = {33},
    year = {2017}
    }
  • [DOI] S. Tijmons, “Autonomous flight of flapping wing micro air vehicles,” PhD Thesis, 2017.
    [Bibtex]
    @phdthesis{74fee365ba6d456a8ec0358dc708eef4,
    author = {Sjoerd Tijmons},
    doi = {10.4233/uuid:74fee365-ba6d-456a-8ec0-358dc708eef4},
    isbn = {978-94-6233-834-0},
    keywords = {Stereo Vision, Obstacle Avoidance, Micro Air Vehicles, Flapping Wings, Robotics, Autonomous Flight, Indoor Flight, Self- Supervised Learning, Attitude Estimation And Control, Wing Actuation Mechanism},
    language = {English},
    school = {Delft University of Technology},
    title = {Autonomous Flight of Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicles},
    url = {https://research.tudelft.nl/en/publications/autonomous-flight-of-flapping-wing-micro-air-vehicles},
    year = {2017}
    }

2018

  • [DOI] S. Tijmons, M. Karásek, and G. {De Croon}, “Attitude control system for a lightweight flapping wing mav,” Bioinspiration & biomimetics: learning from nature, vol. 13, iss. 5, 2018.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{43792c02912d4bae99009d457737436e,
    author = {Sjoerd Tijmons and Mat{\v e}j Kar{\'a}sek and {De Croon}, Guido},
    day = {20},
    doi = {10.1088/1748-3190/aab68c},
    issn = {1748-3182},
    journal = {Bioinspiration \& Biomimetics: learning from nature},
    keywords = {attitude estimation and control, control mechanism, flapping wing, micro air vehicle},
    language = {English},
    month = {July},
    number = {5},
    publisher = {IOP Publishing},
    title = {Attitude control system for a lightweight flapping wing MAV},
    url = {https://research.tudelft.nl/en/publications/attitude-control-system-for-a-lightweight-flapping-wing-mav},
    volume = {13},
    year = {2018}
    }
  • [DOI] S. Tijmons, C. {de Wagter}, B. Remes, and G. {de Croon}, “Autonomous door and corridor traversal with a 20-gram flapping wing mav by onboard stereo vision,” Aerospace — open access aeronautics and astronautics journal, vol. 5, iss. 3, 2018.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{a8d813d2e8174bbabcda8e05ed401a26,
    author = {Sjoerd Tijmons and {de Wagter}, Christophe and Bart Remes and {de Croon}, Guido},
    day = {25},
    doi = {10.3390/aerospace5030069},
    issn = {2226-4310},
    journal = {Aerospace — Open Access Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal},
    keywords = {micro air vehicle, DelFly, flapping wing MAV, corridor traversal, stereo vision},
    language = {English},
    month = {June},
    number = {3},
    publisher = {MDPI},
    title = {Autonomous Door and Corridor Traversal with a 20-Gram Flapping Wing MAV by Onboard Stereo Vision},
    url = {https://research.tudelft.nl/en/publications/autonomous-door-and-corridor-traversal-with-a-20-gram-flapping-wi},
    volume = {5},
    year = {2018}
    }
  • S. Tijmons and K. Lamers, Flapping wing mav, 2018.
    [Bibtex]
    @misc{3d8b515163644ec29ed8ce29d970d0ea,
    author = {S. Tijmons and K. Lamers},
    language = {English},
    note = {B64C},
    title = {Flapping Wing MAV},
    type = {Patent},
    url = {https://research.tudelft.nl/en/publications/flapping-wing-mav},
    year = {2018}
    }
  • B. Tijmons, K. G. {van Hecke}, and S. Tijmons, Insect elimination system and use thereof, 2018.
    [Bibtex]
    @misc{f136264fb7d646e08fd1d4e40941ffdc,
    author = {B. Tijmons and {van Hecke}, K.G. and S. Tijmons},
    language = {English},
    note = {B64C},
    title = {Insect elimination system and use thereof},
    type = {Patent},
    url = {https://research.tudelft.nl/en/publications/insect-elimination-system-and-use-thereof},
    year = {2018}
    }

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