Model identification of small flapping wing vehicles with unsteady aerodynamics requires new approaches.

Publications

2013

  • [DOI] J. V. Caetano, C. C. de Visser, B. D. W. Remes, C. De Wagter, E. {Van Kampen}, and M. Mulder, “Controlled Flight Maneuvers of a Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicle: a Step Towards the Delfly II Identification,” in Aiaa atmospheric flight mechanics (afm) conference, guidance, navigation, and control and co-located conferences, 2013.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{Caetano2013b,
    author = {Caetano, Joao V. and de Visser, C. C. and Remes, B. D. W. and De Wagter, C. and {Van Kampen}, Erik-Jan and Mulder, Max},
    booktitle = {AIAA Atmospheric Flight Mechanics (AFM) Conference, Guidance, Navigation, and Control and Co-located Conferences},
    doi = {10.2514/6.2013-4843},
    language = {en},
    title = {{Controlled Flight Maneuvers of a Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicle: a Step Towards the Delfly II Identification}},
    url = {http://arc.aiaa.org/doi/abs/10.2514/6.2013-4843},
    year = {2013}
    }
  • J. V. Caetano, J. Verboom, C. C. De Visser, G. C. H. E. De Croon, B. D. W. Remes, C. De Wagter, and M. Mulder, “Near-hover flapping wing mav aerodynamic modelling — a linear model approach,” International journal of micro air vehicles, vol. 5, iss. 4, 2013.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{caetano2013near,
    title={Near-hover flapping wing mav aerodynamic modelling -- A linear model approach},
    author={Caetano, J.V. and Verboom, J. and De Visser, C.C. and De Croon, G.C.H.E. and Remes, B.D.W. and De Wagter, C. and Mulder, M.},
    journal={International Journal of Micro Air Vehicles},
    year={2013},
    volume={5},
    number={4}
    }
  • [DOI] J. Caetano, C. C. de Visser, G. C. H. E. de Croon, B. D. W. Remes, C. De Wagter, J. Verboom, and M. Mulder, “Linear Aerodynamic Model Identification of a Flapping Wing MAV Based on Flight Test Data,” International journal of micro air vehicles, vol. 5, iss. 4, pp. 273-286, 2013.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{Caetano2013,
    abstract = {This paper presents an approach to the system identification of the Delfly II Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicle (FWMAV) using flight test data. It aims at providing simple FWMAV aerodynamic models that can be used in simulations as well as in nonlinear flight control systems. The undertaken methodology builds on normal aircraft system identification methods and extends these with techniques that are specific to FWMAV model identification. The entire aircraft model identification cycle is discussed covering the set-up and automatic execution of the flight test experiments, the aircraft states, the aerodynamic forces and moments' reconstruction, the aerodynamic model structure selection, the parameter estimation and finally, the model validation. In particular, a motion capturing facility was used to record the flapper's position in time and from there compute the states and aerodynamic forces and moments that acted on it, assuming flap-averaged dynamics and linear aerodynamic model structures. It is shown th...},
    author = {Caetano, J. and de Visser, C. C. and de Croon, G. C. H. E. and Remes, B. D. W. and De Wagter, C. and Verboom, J. and Mulder, M.},
    doi = {10.1260/1756-8293.5.4.273},
    issn = {1756-8293},
    journal = {International Journal of Micro Air Vehicles},
    language = {en},
    month = {dec},
    number = {4},
    pages = {273--286},
    publisher = {Multi Science Publishing},
    title = {{Linear Aerodynamic Model Identification of a Flapping Wing MAV Based on Flight Test Data}},
    url = {http://multi-science.atypon.com/doi/10.1260/1756-8293.5.4.273},
    volume = {5},
    year = {2013}
    }

2014

  • [DOI] J. V. Caetano, M. Percin, C. C. de Visser, B. Van Oudheusden, G. C. H. E. de Croon, C. De Wagter, B. D. W. Remes, and M. Mulder, “Tethered vs. free flight force determination of the delfly II flapping wing micro air vehicle,” 2014 international conference on unmanned aircraft systems, icuas 2014 – conference proceedings, pp. 942-948, 2014.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{Caetano2014a,
    abstract = {The determination of dynamic forces acting on a Flapping Wing Micro Aerial Vehicle (FWMAV) is a challenging task due to the unsteady nature of force generation mechanisms. To assure a proper force identification in future researches, this work compares two different methods to obtain the longitudinal forces acting on FWMAVs and discusses their applicability regions. The methods were 1) calculation of forces from the recordings of the FWMAV's position in a free flight condition; 2) direct force measurements in a tethered flight condition in a wind tunnel. The DelFly II is used as the FWMAV test platform in the measurements. During free flight experiments, its position and attitude were recorded at a rate of 200Hz using an external visual tracking system, whose acquired information was then analyzed to obtain the flight states and calculate the forces and moments that act on the platform during flight, under a set of kinematic assumptions. Subsequently, similar flight conditions were tested in the tethered situation. An ATI Nano-17 Titanium force transducer was used to measure time-resolved forces. The results for the most common flight regime of the DelFly, which is a slow forward flight at a high body pitch angle, are presented. It is shown that the tethered force balance tests agree with the free flight data when assessing the aerodynamic forces that are perpendicular to the stroke plane of the flapping wing. However, the forces that act along the stroke plane are coupled with structural dynamic terms, thus affecting the final lift and thrust identification. These results point to inadequate force identification in fixed point force measurements, due to effect the of the dynamic modes of the FWMAV body, thus advising proper cross-comparing between experimental methods. {\textcopyright} 2014 IEEE.},
    author = {Caetano, J. V. and Percin, M. and de Visser, C. C. and Van Oudheusden, B. and de Croon, G. C. H. E. and De Wagter, C. and Remes, B. D. W. and Mulder, M.},
    doi = {10.1109/ICUAS.2014.6842344},
    isbn = {9781479923762},
    journal = {2014 International Conference on Unmanned Aircraft Systems, ICUAS 2014 - Conference Proceedings},
    pages = {942--948},
    title = {{Tethered vs. free flight force determination of the delfly II flapping wing micro air vehicle}},
    year = {2014}
    }
  • J. V. Caetano, M. B. Weehuizen, C. C. de Visser, G. C. H. E. de Croon, C. de Wagter, B. Remes, and M. Mulder, “Rigid vs. Flapping: The Effects of Kinematic Formulations in Force Determination of a Free Flying Flapping WIng Micro Air Vehicle,” in International conference on unmanned aircraft systems, Orlando, US-FL, 2014, pp. 949-959.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{caetanoEtAl2014,
    address = {Orlando, US-FL},
    author = {Caetano, J V and Weehuizen, M B and de Visser, C C and de Croon, G C H E and de Wagter, C and Remes, B and Mulder, M},
    booktitle = {International Conference on Unmanned Aircraft Systems},
    keywords = {aero-dynamics aero-forces delfly flapping-wing fre},
    organization = {Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers},
    pages = {949--959},
    title = {{Rigid vs. Flapping: The Effects of Kinematic Formulations in Force Determination of a Free Flying Flapping WIng Micro Air Vehicle}},
    year = {2014}
    }
  • [PDF] [DOI] J. V. Caetano, M. Percin, C. C. de Visser, B. van Oudheusden, G. C. H. E. de Croon, C. De Wagter, B. D. W. Remes, and M. Mulder, “Tethered vs. free flight force determination of the DelFly II Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicle,” in 2014 international conference on unmanned aircraft systems (icuas), 2014, pp. 942-948.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{Caetano2014b,
    author = {Caetano, J.V. and Percin, M. and de Visser, C. C. and van Oudheusden, B. and de Croon, G. C. H. E. and De Wagter, C. and Remes, B. D. W. and Mulder, M.},
    booktitle = {2014 International Conference on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (ICUAS)},
    doi = {10.1109/ICUAS.2014.6842344},
    isbn = {978-1-4799-2376-2},
    keywords = {ATI Nano-17 Titanium force transducer,Aerodynamics,DelFly II,FWMAV,Force,Force measurement,Kinematics,Vehicle dynamics,Vehicles,aerodynamic forces,aerodynamics,aerospace components,direct force measurement,fixed point force measurement,flapping wing microair vehicle,force generation mechanism,force measurement,free flight force determination,lift,longitudinal forces,pitch angle,stroke plane,tethered flight force,thrust identification,visual tracking system,wind tunnel,wind tunnels},
    language = {English},
    month = {may},
    pages = {942--948},
    publisher = {IEEE},
    title = {{Tethered vs. free flight force determination of the DelFly II Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicle}},
    url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=6842344},
    year = {2014},
    pdf = {https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Joao_V_Caetano/publication/269299791_Tethered_vs_free_flight_force_determination_of_the_DelFly_II_Flapping_Wing_Micro_Air_Vehicle/links/548feed90cf225bf66a80744.pdf}
    }
  • [DOI] J. V. Caetano, M. Percin, C. C. de Visser, B. van Oudheusden, G. C. H. E. de Croon, C. De Wagter, B. D. W. Remes, and M. Mulder, “Tethered vs. free flight force determination of the DelFly II Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicle,” in 2014 international conference on unmanned aircraft systems (icuas), 2014, pp. 942-948.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{Caetano2014,
    abstract = {The determination of dynamic forces acting on a Flapping Wing Micro Aerial Vehicle (FWMAV) is a challenging task due to the unsteady nature of force generation mechanisms. To assure a proper force identification in future researches, this work compares two different methods to obtain the longitudinal forces acting on FWMAVs and discusses their applicability regions. The methods were 1) calculation of forces from the recordings of the FWMAV's position in a free flight condition; 2) direct force measurements in a tethered flight condition in a wind tunnel. The DelFly II is used as the FWMAV test platform in the measurements. During free flight experiments, its position and attitude were recorded at a rate of 200Hz using an external visual tracking system, whose acquired information was then analyzed to obtain the flight states and calculate the forces and moments that act on the platform during flight, under a set of kinematic assumptions. Subsequently, similar flight conditions were tested in the tethered situation. An ATI Nano-17 Titanium force transducer was used to measure time-resolved forces. The results for the most common flight regime of the DelFly, which is a slow forward flight at a high body pitch angle, are presented. It is shown that the tethered force balance tests agree with the free flight data when assessing the aerodynamic forces that are perpendicular to the stroke plane of the flapping wing. However, the forces that act along the stroke plane are coupled with structural dynamic terms, thus affecting the final lift and thrust identification. These results point to inadequate force identification in fixed point force measurements, due to effect the of the dynamic modes of the FWMAV body, thus advising proper cross-comparing between experimental methods.},
    author = {Caetano, J.V. and Percin, M. and de Visser, C. C. and van Oudheusden, B. and de Croon, G. C. H. E. and De Wagter, C. and Remes, B. D. W. and Mulder, M.},
    booktitle = {2014 International Conference on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (ICUAS)},
    doi = {10.1109/ICUAS.2014.6842344},
    isbn = {978-1-4799-2376-2},
    keywords = {ATI Nano-17 Titanium force transducer,Aerodynamics,DelFly II,FWMAV,Force,Force measurement,Kinematics,Vehicle dynamics,Vehicles,aerodynamic forces,aerodynamics,aerospace components,direct force measurement,fixed point force measurement,flapping wing microair vehicle,force generation mechanism,force measurement,free flight force determination,lift,longitudinal forces,pitch angle,stroke plane,tethered flight force,thrust identification,visual tracking system,wind tunnel,wind tunnels},
    month = {may},
    pages = {942--948},
    publisher = {IEEE},
    shorttitle = {Unmanned Aircraft Systems (ICUAS), 2014 Internatio},
    title = {{Tethered vs. free flight force determination of the DelFly II Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicle}},
    url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/lpdocs/epic03/wrapper.htm?arnumber=6842344},
    year = {2014}
    }
  • [DOI] S. F. Armanini, J. L. Verboom, G. C. H. E. de Croon, and C. C. de Visser, “Determination of trim curves for a flapping-wing MAV,” in Imav 2014: international micro air vehicle conference and competition 2014, delft, the netherlands, august 12-15, 2014, Delft, 2014, pp. 212-217.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{Armanini2014,
    abstract = {This paper presents the results of a series of flight tests conducted in order to assess the steady-state flight characteristics and basic control behaviour of the DelFly, a flapping-wing micro aerial vehicle (FWMAV). Flights were conducted in an indoor motion tracking facility and included steady-level flight at a range of different velocities and turn manoeuvres. A number of different trim points were determined and approximate trim curves constructed to describe elevator effectiveness. Aileron effectiveness was then evaluated in terms of resulting turn radii and turn rates. The results provide insight into some of the basic flight properties of the DelFly and represent a starting point for further modelling work. The flight testing process also highlighted some of the major issues to be addressed in order to obtain meaningful experimental results.},
    author = {Armanini, S.F. and Verboom, J.L. and de Croon, G. C. H. E. and de Visser, C. C.},
    booktitle = {IMAV 2014: International Micro Air Vehicle Conference and Competition 2014, Delft, The Netherlands, August 12-15, 2014},
    doi = {10.4233/uuid:30b89d0f-fb8a-4acd-99d9-dc8c20e819a8},
    keywords = {IMAV2014,MAV,Micro Air Vehicle,flapping wing,trim curves},
    language = {en},
    month = {aug},
    publisher = {Delft University of Technology},
    title = {{Determination of trim curves for a flapping-wing MAV}},
    url = {http://repository.tudelft.nl/view/ir/uuid{\%}3Aea4d67c6-5cf3-437e-8aa0-5aa3d70f92a5/},
    year = {2014},
    Address = {Delft},
    Pages = {212--217},
    }

2015

  • [PDF] J. V. Caetano, S. F. Armanini, D. C. C. Visser, D. G. C. H. E. Croon, and M. Mulder, “Data-Informed Quasi-Steady Aerodynamic Model of a Clap-and-Fling Flapping Wing MAV,” in Int. conf. on intelligent unmanned systems (icius), Bali, Indonesia, 2015.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Caetano2015,
    Title = {{Data-Informed Quasi-Steady Aerodynamic Model of a Clap-and-Fling Flapping Wing MAV}},
    Author = {Caetano, J. V. and Armanini, S. F. and Visser, C. C. De and Croon, G. C. H. E. De and Mulder, M.},
    Booktitle = {Int. conf. on Intelligent Unmanned Systems (ICIUS)},
    Year = {2015},
    Address = {Bali, Indonesia},
    File = {:C$\backslash$:/Users/Sophie/AppData/Local/Mendeley Ltd./Mendeley Desktop/Downloaded/Caetano et al. - 2015 - Data-Informed Quasi-Steady Aerodynamic Model of a Clap-and-Fling Flapping Wing MAV.pdf:pdf},
    pdf = {https://www.researchgate.net/publication/283545562_Data-Informed_Quasi-Steady_Aerodynamic_Model_of_a_Clap-and-Fling_Flapping_Wing_MAV}
    }
  • S. F. Armanini, C. C. de Visser, G. C. H. E. de Croon, and M. Mulder, “Time-varying model identification of flapping-wing micro aerial vehicle dynamics using flight data,” Journal of guidance, control, and dynamics, vol. 39, iss. 3, 2015.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{ArmaniniEtAl2015,
    author = { Armanini, S.F. and de Visser, C.C. and de Croon, G.C.H.E. and Mulder, M.},
    title = {{Time-varying model identification of flapping-wing micro aerial vehicle dynamics using flight data}},
    journal = {Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics},
    volume = {39},
    number = {3},
    year = {2015}
    }
  • J. Caetano, M. Weehuizen, C. De Visser, G. De Croon, and M. Mulder, “Rigid-body kinematics versus flapping kinematics of a flapping wing micro air vehicle,” Journal of guidance, control, and dynamics, vol. 38, iss. 12, pp. 2257-2269, 2015.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{caetano2015rigid,
    title={Rigid-body kinematics versus flapping kinematics of a flapping wing micro air vehicle},
    author={Caetano, JV and Weehuizen, MB and De Visser, CC and De Croon, GCHE and Mulder, M},
    journal={Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics},
    volume={38},
    number={12},
    pages={2257--2269},
    year={2015},
    publisher={American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics}
    }
  • J. Caetano, M. Percin, B. van Oudheusden, B. Remes, C. de Wagter, G. de Croon, and C. de Visser, “Error analysis and assessment of unsteady forces acting on a flapping wing micro air vehicle: free flight versus wind-tunnel experimental methods,” Bioinspiration & biomimetics, vol. 10, iss. 5, p. 56004, 2015.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{caetano2015error,
    title={Error analysis and assessment of unsteady forces acting on a flapping wing micro air vehicle: free flight versus wind-tunnel experimental methods},
    author={Caetano, JV and Percin, M and van Oudheusden, BW and Remes, B and de Wagter, C and de Croon, GCHE and de Visser, CC},
    journal={Bioinspiration \& biomimetics},
    volume={10},
    number={5},
    pages={056004},
    year={2015},
    publisher={IOP Publishing}
    }
  • [PDF] [DOI] S. F. Armanini, C. C. de Visser, and G. C. H. E. de Croon, “Black-box LTI modelling of flapping-wing micro aerial vehicle dynamics,” in Aiaa atmospheric flight mechanics conference, Reston, Virginia, 2015.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{Armanini2015d,
    address = {Reston, Virginia},
    author = {Armanini, Sophie F. and de Visser, C. C. and de Croon, G. C. H. E.},
    booktitle = {AIAA Atmospheric Flight Mechanics Conference},
    doi = {10.2514/6.2015-0234},
    isbn = {978-1-62410-340-7},
    year = {2015},
    month = {jan},
    publisher = {American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics},
    title = {{Black-box LTI modelling of flapping-wing micro aerial vehicle dynamics}},
    pdf = {https://www.researchgate.net/publication/281275050_Black-box_LTI_modelling_of_flapping-wing_micro_aerial_vehicle_dynamics?ev=prf_pub}
    }

2016

  • [PDF] M. Kar├ísek, A. J. Koopmans, S. F. Armanini, B. D. W. Remes, and G. C. H. E. de Croon, “Free flight force estimation of a 23.5 g flapping wing MAV using an on-board IMU,” in The 2016 ieee/rsj international conference on intelligent robots and systems (iros 2016), daejeon, korea, 9-14 october 2016 (accepted), Daejeon, Korea, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{Karasek2016,
    abstract = {Despite an intensive research on flapping flight and flapping wing MAVs in recent years, there are still no accurate models of flapping flight dynamics. This is partly due to lack of free flight data, in particular during manoeuvres. In this work, we present, for the first time, a comparison of free flight forces estimated using solely an on-board IMU with wind tunnel measurements. The IMU based estimation brings higher sampling rates and even lower variation among individual wingbeats, compared to what has been achieved with an external motion tracking system in the past. A good match was found in comparison to wind tunnel measurements; the slight differences observed are attributed to clamping effects. Further insight was gained from the on-board rpm sensor, which showed motor speed variation of +/- 15{\%} due to load variation over a wingbeat cycle. The IMU based force estimation represents an attractive solution for future studies of flapping wing MAVs as, unlike wind tunnel measurements, it allows force estimation at high temporal resolutions also during manoeuvres.},
    author = {Kar{\'{a}}sek, Mat{\v{e}}j and Koopmans, Andries Jan and Armanini, Sophie F. and Remes, Bart D. W. and de Croon, Guido C.H.E.},
    booktitle = {The 2016 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS 2016), Daejeon, Korea, 9-14 October 2016 (Accepted)},
    keywords = {DelFly,MAVLab},
    mendeley-tags = {DelFly,MAVLab},
    title = {{Free flight force estimation of a 23.5 g flapping wing MAV using an on-board IMU}},
    year = {2016},
    Address = {Daejeon, Korea},
    pdf = {https://www.researchgate.net/publication/309419018_Free_Flight_Force_Estimation_of_a_235_G_Flapping_Wing_MAV_Using_an_On-Board_IMU}
    }
  • [PDF] S. F. Armanini, C. C. a. de Visser, G. C. H. E. de Croon, and M. Mulder, “A time-scale separation approach for time-varying model identification of a flapping-wing micro aerial vehicle,” in Aiaa atmospheric flight mechanics (afm) conference, jan.4-8, san diego, usa, 2016, pp. 1-19.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Armanini2016a,
    Title = {{A time-scale separation approach for time-varying model identification of a flapping-wing micro aerial vehicle}},
    Author = {Armanini, S. F. and de Visser, C.C.a and de Croon, G.C.H.E and Mulder, M.},
    Booktitle = {AIAA Atmospheric Flight Mechanics (AFM) Conference, Jan.4-8, San Diego, USA},
    Year = {2016},
    Pages = {1--19},
    pdf = {https://www.researchgate.net/publication/290955280_A_Time-Scale_Separation_Approach_for_Time-Varying_Model_Identification_of_a_Flapping-Wing_Micro_Aerial_Vehicle}
    }
  • [PDF] S. F. Armanini, J. V. Caetano, C. C. de Visser, G. C. H. E. de Croon, and M. Mulder, “Aerodynamic Model Identification of a Clap-and-Fling Flapping-Wing MAV : a Comparison between Quasi-Steady and Black-Box Approaches,” in Aiaa atmospheric flight mechanics (afm) conference, jan.4-8, san diego, usa, 2016, pp. 1-15.
    [Bibtex]
    @InProceedings{Armanini2016b,
    Title = {{Aerodynamic Model Identification of a Clap-and-Fling Flapping-Wing MAV : a Comparison between Quasi-Steady and Black-Box Approaches}},
    Author = {Armanini, S. F. and Caetano, J.V. and de Visser, C.C. and de Croon, G.C.H.E and Mulder, M.},
    Booktitle = {AIAA Atmospheric Flight Mechanics (AFM) Conference, Jan.4-8, San Diego, USA},
    Year = {2016},
    Pages = {1--15},
    pdf = {https://www.researchgate.net/publication/290955446_Aerodynamic_Model_Identification_of_a_Clap-and-Fling_Flapping-Wing_MAV_a_Comparison_between_Quasi-Steady_and_Black-Box_Approaches}
    }
  • [PDF] [DOI] S. F. Armanini, D. C. C. Visser, D. G. C. H. E. Croon, and M. Mulder, “Time-varying model identification of flapping-wing vehicle dynamics using flight data,” Journal of guidance, control, and dynamics, vol. 39, iss. 3, pp. 526-541, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{Armanini2016,
    Title = {{Time-varying model identification of flapping-wing vehicle dynamics using flight data}},
    Author = {Armanini, S. F. and Visser, C C De and Croon, G C H E De and Mulder, M},
    Journal = {Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics},
    Year = {2016},
    Number = {3},
    Pages = {526--541},
    Volume = {39},
    Doi = {10.2514/1.G001470},
    File = {:C$\backslash$:/Users/Sophie/AppData/Local/Mendeley Ltd./Mendeley Desktop/Downloaded/Armanini et al. - 2015 - Time-varying model identification of a flapping-wing micro aerial vehicle using flight data.pdf:pdf},
    pdf = {https://www.researchgate.net/publication/287376416_Time-Varying_Model_Identification_of_Flapping-Wing_Vehicle_Dynamics_Using_Flight_Data}
    }
  • [PDF] S. F. Armanini, J. V. Caetano, G. C. H. E. de Croon, C. C. de Visser, and M. Mulder, “Quasi-steady aerodynamic model of clap-and-fling flapping mav and validation using free-flight data,” Bioinspiration & biomimetics, vol. 11, iss. 4, p. 46002, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{armanini2016quasi,
    title={Quasi-steady aerodynamic model of clap-and-fling flapping MAV and validation using free-flight data},
    author={Armanini, S.F. and Caetano, J.V. and de Croon, G.C.H.E. and de Visser, C.C. and Mulder, M.},
    journal={Bioinspiration \& Biomimetics},
    volume={11},
    number={4},
    pages={046002},
    year={2016},
    publisher={IOP Publishing},
    pdf = {https://www.researchgate.net/publication/304661595_Quasi-steady_aerodynamic_model_of_clap-and-fling_flapping_MAV_and_validation_using_free-flight_data}
    }